Captain Joshua Slocum, world famous adventurer and author.
On the chilly Sunday morning of the 14th of November,1909, a 65-year-old experienced sailor and world famous author, Joshua Slocum, began his last journey.
On that morning, in Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts, Joshua Slocum cast off the dock lines of his 37 foot wooden sloop, “Spray,” as he had hundreds of times. As usual, he was alone on board.
The “Spray” headed out to sea on a long voyage.
Alone, out at sea, the wind caught his sails and Slocum set his course South, leaving New England, passing New York, the Jersey shore, and then past the Eastern Atlantic States, until he was seen off the coast of Miami Florida, or, at least some people thought they saw him. His destination was the Orinoco, Rio Negro and Amazon Rivers, where he had sailed before.
And that is the last time anyone saw or thought they saw Captain Joshua Slocum. He and the “Spray” totally disappeared and were never seen again. In his wake, Slocum left us some gifts: books he wrote about his strange and fascinating voyages. They include “The Voyage of the Liberdade,” which I have recorded and published as a Listen 2 Read audiobook:
Joshua Slocum aboard the “Spray”.
and his second and most famous book, “Sailing Alone Around The World,” recounting the true adventure of being the first man to successfully circumnavigate the world by himself, without a crew of any kind.
It took awhile for people to realize that Slocum had not been heard of for a long, long time. Finally, seven months after he sailed out of Martha’s Vineyard, in July 1910, his wife, Hettie Slocum, told the newspapers she believed her husband was lost at sea. He was declared legally dead in 1924.
Slocum and the “Spray” on the Erie Canal during the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo in 1901.
Over the years, people have speculated about what could have happened to Slocum. A well-known authority claimed to have once examined the “Spray” and stated that it could dangerously capsize if it heeled past a shallow angle, making Slocum just lucky that the “Spray” had not capsized earlier.
Really? Slocum sailed the “Spray” over 40,000 miles around the world, in every kind of weather. His survival had to be the result of skill, not luck.
Hettie Slocum, Slocum’s second wife and first cousin, prefered to stay on dry land.
Someone claimed Slocum disappeared to provide insurance money for his wife. But Hettie, his second wife, had to wait 14 years after he disappeared before he was declared legally dead. After her adventure with her husband on the high seas, told in “The Voyage of the Liberdade,” Hettie remained on dry land for the rest of her life.
“Spray” in port next to huge cargo ships.
The most considered opinion was that Slocum piloted his “Spray” down the eastern coast of America, and that somewhere south of Key West, in the night, perhaps in the Bermuda Triangle, his small boat was hit, capsized and destroyed by a large commercial steamship that probably didn’t even know it hit him.
If that is true, it is a strange twist of fate, since the advent of steam power seemed to be Slocum’s enemy. Slocum had an incredible knowledge of traditional wind powered sailing ships; he totally supervised the building of a commercial cargo ship from scratch.
The “Northern Light,” the largest ship Joshua Slocum Captained. He was also part owner.
Slocum had commanded large sailing ships, the so-called, tall ships. In fact, he had commanded and partly owned the largest sailing ship of its time, “The Northern Light”. He was considered an expert at Captaining tall ships, using only the wind for power. And he could handle the tough crews too, as evidenced in “The Voyage of the Liberdade,” when he single handedly stopped a mutiny.
The “Aquidneck,” the last commercial ship Slocum owned and Captained.
This was the uninsured ship wrecked on the beach in Brazil leading to “The Voyage of the Liberdade.”
Unfortunately for Slocum, the advent of steam lessened the importance of those skills. It was much easier to maneuver a steam-powered ship than one powered by the wind, as he did spectacularly when he delivered an old worn out battleship to the Brazilian Army in “The Voyage of the Destroyer,” (included in my recording of the “The Voyage of the Liberdade”). And steam ship crews were smaller, needing less supervision.
Sadly for Slocum, after the destruction of a ship under his ownership and command in Brazil, which led to the adventure of “The Voyage of the Liberdade,” ship owners considered Slocum a risky choice for Captain.
Captain Joshua Slocum prepares for an adventure.
Like so many people today, the very gifted Slocum became a man with a skill set no longer needed. Perhaps that is why he tried to reinvent himself by circumnavigating the world, writing and lecturing about it.
Nobody really knows how Slocum died, but if he was killed at sea in a crash with a giant steamer, as many suggest, it was as if new technology not only changed his life, but also took his life away.
Oh, and there was one more thing: with all his experience at sea, Joshua Slocum never learned to swim.
You can see pictures of Captain Joshua Slocum and listen to a sample of “The Voyage of the Liberdade” audiobook at:
Download or purchase “The Voyage of the Liberdade” audiobook, here on my website or from your favorite audiobook retailer.
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© 2017 Listen2read.com
Just when you thought sharks were the only animals to avoid while in the ocean, it seems some angry whales are in attack mode.
Whale Attack in Queensland
A giant Humpback Whale attacked a 30-foot fishing boat below the water line last week in Queensland, Australia. The pressure from the whale threw the charter boat, “The Mistress,” into the air.
“Within a split second, we all hit the floor, the boat launched up into the air and dislodged everyone off their feet,” Captain Oliver Gales told the local newspaper, the Telegraph. One passenger was knocked unconscious and three others were injured.
Afterward, the whale just swam by.
“We see whales all the time, but it’s never known for this sort of thing to happen,” Gales said.
Whale Attack in Alaska
Orca Killer Whale
A few weeks ago in Sitka, Alaska, an Orca Whale attacked a 33 foot boat on a weekend excursion. While the boat was anchored near Little Biorka Island, the Orca rammed the boat, yanked its anchor line and whacked the boat with its tail. Boat owner Victor Littlefield screamed at the whale, hoping to scare it off.
It didn’t help that the night before Littlefield had seen the movie “Jaws.”
The First Whale Attack
Angry whales attacking ships was unheard of before 1820. We humans thought we had the upper hand. It seemed it was perfectly acceptable for humans to attack whales, but unimagineable for whales to attack us.
Whale attacks the Whale Ship Essex in 1820, depicted in a drawing at the time.
That idea changed a little after 8 o’clock in the morning of November 20, 1820, in the Pacific Ocean at the equator, almost 1500 miles from land. The 89 foot whale ship, Essex, was attacked by an 85 foot sperm whale.
The angry whale bashed in one side of the wooden ship below the water line, swam under the ship and bashed in the other side. The ship rapidly took on water and eventually sank, leaving the crew huddled in a few small boats. Most of that crew perished at sea, trying to reach land, as water and food supplies dwindled.
Cover of Listen To Read audiobook “Narrative of the Most Extraordinary and Distressing Shipwreck of the Whale Ship Essex,” available as a digital download or an Mp3 CD.
We know the story of the Essex because one of the survivors, Owen Chase, First Mate, wrote down the story and had his book printed privately the next year.
You can hear Chase’s first person description of the incredible attack and fight for survival on our audiobook, “Narrative of the Most Extraordinary And Distressing Shipwreck of the Whale Ship Essex.”
The “Moby Dick” Connection
Twenty years later, in 1841, Owen Chase’s son served on a whale ship, which crossed paths with another whale ship in the Pacific Ocean, almost exactly where the Essex met her doom.
On board the other whale ship was a sailor and future novelist, Herman Melville. As the two crews socialized, Chase’s son let Melville read his father’s account of the doomed Essex, which gave Melville the idea for what would become his famous novel, “Moby Dick,” the story of an angry whale.
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PS: You can easily download the audiobook of “Narrative of the Most Extraordinary
And Distressing Shipwreck of the Whale Ship Essex” here:
PPS: You can see pictures and hear a free preview of our Listen2Read audiobook here:
Bears Ears National Monument, re-examined for being too large.
Ancient Native American treasures found in Bears Ears National Monument
Donald Trump’s re-examination of Bears Ears Monument in Utah, covered by the Antiquities Act, reminded me why the Antiquities Act had been created in the first place in 1903.
THE HOMESTEAD ACT
Before there was an Antiquities Act, there was a Federal Homestead Act of 1862, where the Federal Government encouraged people to settle in the newly acquired U.S. lands in the West. Aimed primarily at farmers, offering 160 acres free if developed within five years, it was a benefit people took seriously. And it was a mind set:
Bridalveil Falls Yosemite Valley California
the government wanted the newly opened western lands used and exploited for a developing economy.
Exploitation was taking place everywhere, including the Yosemite Valley in California, considered a uniquely beautiful treasure. Because of the Homestead Act, Yosemite was being cut up by homesteaders, railroads, mining and sheep herding interests.
THE YOSEMITE GRANT
There was no existing law to preserve Yosemite from exploitation. Something needed to be done. In 1864, two years after the Homestead Act, the Yosemite Grant was created, which removed Yosemite from development and gave it to the State of California as a State Park.
Yosemite Valley in Winter
The Yosemite Grant was signed in 1864 by President Abraham Lincoln and introduced a new and very controversial concept: the ability of the Federal Government to acquire State land without payment by the Federal Government. Once the concept was accepted, it was also used as a legal precedent in 1872 to establish Yellowstone National Park, nationalizing lands that were once controlled by Montana, Wyoming and Idaho.
THE CAMPING TRIP THAT MADE HISTORY
In May 1903, a Southern Pacific Railroad train from San Francisco arrived at the little town of Raymond, California, formerly known as Wildcat Station. On board the train was the President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt, with thirty Cavalry escorts and one lone naturalist, John Muir.
Camp in Yosemite with Theodore Roosevelt and John Muir.
Departing the steam train, the President and Muir with others of his party were placed in stage coaches to ride another exhausting 65 miles to the Mariposa Grove in Yosemite. There, a camp was established and the exhausted President retired for the evening with instructions not to be disturbed. Roosevelt slept on 40 blankets, piled up for a bed. There was still snow on the ground.
During their three-day trip, Roosevelt and Muir avoided the busy Wawona Hotel, built in 1876, to avoid the crowds and keep in the spirit of nature. Roosevelt wanted what he called a “roughing trip.” Many people knew the President was visiting Yosemite and wanted to see him. Keeping him away from crowds was part of the duties of Charlie Leadig, the local guide.
Roosevelt and Muir on horseback, with Yosemite Half Dome in the background.
The next morning at 6:30 AM, Roosevelt, Muir and a small party began traveling the Lightning Trail on horseback. In the Bridalveil Meadows, they plowed through five feet of snow. It was still snowing when they arrived for the evening at what is today Glacier Point Camp.
That night, a crackling campfire provided warmth from the snowy chill as Roosevelt and Muir talked and talked. It was an animated, excited conversation, where both men seemed to want to talk at the same time, according to a witness.
Theodore Roosevelt and John Muir at Glacier Point, Yosemite.
Muir and Roosevelt discussed the idea of preserving important forests in other parts of the United States. Out of this exchange came the idea that Yosemite should be a National Park instead of a State Park. It snowed 5 inches that night and the next morning the ground was frozen. But an idea was born, and shortly after, Yosemite was removed from the jurisdiction of California and became a National Park. The change stirred Roosevelt’s thinking.
THE NATIONAL ANTIQUITIES ACT
Three years later in 1906, Congress passed, and President Roosevelt signed, the National Antiquities act, which said, in part:
“That the President of the United States is hereby authorized, in his discretion, to declare by public proclamation historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest that are situated upon the lands owned or controlled by the Government of the United States to be national monuments, and may reserve as a part thereof parcels of land, the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with proper care and management of the objects to be protected.”
The Grand Canyon in Arizona.
Interestingly, the Act does not give the President the power to reduce or eliminate anything that has been established by the Act or enacted to by previous Presidents. The President can only act on the powers granted him by established law.
After signing the Antiquities act, Roosevelt moved quickly to protect 18 other national treasures he felt were threatened, including: Grand Canyon, Arizona; Devils Tower, Wyoming; Gila Cliff Dwellings, New Mexico; Tonto Cliff Dwellings, Arizona; Pinnacles, California and also Mesa Verde in Colorado.
OPPOSITION TO CONSERVATION
Mesa Verde in Colorado.
Not everyone was thrilled with protecting the land. In those days, the natural resources of the United States were available for the taking. Lumber interests saw their endless supply of trees potentially limited. Mining interests railed against having to ask permission to take minerals out of the ground. The West was founded on a free range of open grazing. Now, the Federal government was reaching into sovereign States and claiming large sections of land, which had previously been considered exploitable by the citizens of the state.
As I wrote in a previous blog, there are forces that would destroy the natural views of the Grand Canyon by building a hotel and cable car in plain sight. In Theodore Roosevelt Park in the Dakota Badlands, oil-drilling rigs can be currently viewed from every angle.
Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah.
Today, commercial forces keep pushing against preservation and President Trump seems to be opening up a conversation that many fear will reduce public lands. I hope everyone is misinterpreting his investigation, because I have visited many of our National Parks and Monuments and they are a national treasure, part of what makes me proud of our country.
Placing important lands under Federal Control is what keeps Native American cliff dwellings and petroglyphs from being shooting targets. It’s what keeps the beautiful redwoods from being turned into decks and siding, fantastic natural rock formations from being dynamited for minerals. I believe that National lands give all Americans a pride of ownership.
JOHN MUIR’S DOG STORY
Around that campfire in 1903, John Muir also told President Roosevelt about a theory he had on how Yosemite had been created. He believed the mountains had been carved by ancient glaciers long gone. In 1879, Muir had traveled to Glacier Bay in Alaska to walk on the glaciers and learn about them at first hand.
Out of his adventure came a short story Muir wrote, about a feisty small dog who wouldn’t go away and kept following Muir into very dangerous places.
The story is called “Stickeen” and it one of our most popular audiobooks, and, also our least expensive audiobook. You can hear a preview of Stickeen’s story here:
and you can inexpensively download it from Audible here:
My thanks to the Sierra Club for including our Listen To Read audiobook “Stickeen” to their list of audio visual materials, in connection with their John Muir exhibit: http://vault.sierraclub.org/john_muir_exhibit
Here was the dilemma:
Which of these two stunningly beautiful, one of a kind, world class, historically priceless, irreplaceable, works of nature should the US government totally sacrifice, obliterate and destroy, so no future generations would ever see it?
Choose one: A or B?
“A” is the stunningly beautiful Steamboat Rock in the Echo Park district of the Dinosaur National Monument in northwest Colorado.
“B” is the stunningly beautiful Glen Canyon in the Vermillion Cliffs of southeastern and southcentral Utah and northcentral Arizona.
John Wesley Powell and a Native American. Powell was the first white man to travel down the complete length of the Colorado River.
Both of these were discovered by John Wesley Powell and described in his book “The Exploration of the Colorado River and Its Canyons.”
The problem was this: after Powell’s death defying journey down the unknown Colorado river in 1869, the mighty Colorado river became vitally important to all residents of the Southwest United States as the major source of life sustaining water.
Hoover Dam from down river.
The US government has harnessed the power of the Colorado by creating Hoover Dam, where the Colorado River water is blocked from its natural flow and backs up into a huge reservoir, named Lake Mead, near Las Vegas, Nevada.
From this point, the water flow is controlled as it continues downstream, sustaining communities throughout the Southwest.
The tamed Colorado River sends water to cities from Phoenix, Arizona to Los Angeles, California. As a byproduct, as the water passes through Hoover Dam, it powers giant generators, creating electrical power.
The US government guaranteed the delivery of water to the various stakeholders. However, the Government overestimated the amount of future water available. So, unfortunately, the Government promised more than it could deliver.
Government bureaucrats theorized that if one lake could successfully store Colorado River water, two lakes could store even more water.
Rafting deep in the silent canyons of Echo Park.
The question was: where to locate the second lake.
Naturally, with all the empty lands in the West, the Government chose the most beautiful, irreplaceable Steamboat Rock, in the Echo Park district of the Dinosaur National Monument in Northwest Colorado.
The choice shocked conservationists, environmentalists and all interested in our National Parks.
Hiking on the floor of Glen Canyon.
To save the Colorado River at Steamboat Rock from being dammed and flooding over the stunning Echo Park area, conservationists had to find another choice…and they did, far, far down river, in the middle of the vast desert. The stunning Glen Canyon was their choice. Some say it was sacrificed.
“Glen Canyon died, and I was partly responsible for its needless death,” Sierra Club president, David R. Brower wrote in Sierra Magazine in 1997.
“But as surely as we made a mistake years ago, we can reverse it now. We can drain Lake Powell and let the Colorado River run through the dam that created it…”
Lake Powell, the giant reservoir behind Glen Canyon Dam, was named for John Wesley Powell, the Colorado River explorer. (See pictures of Powell’s Exploration and hear his narrative :
The surface of Lake Powell. The beautiful Glen Canyon is below the water.
When I last visited the lake, the view was deceptive. I felt as if I were in a vast hot desert, in the middle of which was this out of place, huge expanse of water with docks, houseboats and tourist facilities.
I had to stare at the lake for a moment to fully comprehend that all that water, stretching out endlessly, was actually covering and drowning one of America’s most beautiful canyons, buried far below the surface by tons of water.
Two years ago, I wrote about how the drought had lowered the water levels of both Lake Mead and Lake Powell. As I flew over Lake Mead, I could look down and see the rings, like bathtub rings, circling the lake, showing where the water once was and is no longer. It is reported that Lake Mead water is now so low, it is beneath the water intake for the City of Las Vegas. Lake Mead could use a lot more water, but with the drought, nature is not providing it.
Circular rock shapes in the Antelope Canyon portion of Glen Canyon.
That needed water just might be in Lake Powell, covering Glen Canyon. Environmentalists have proposed that Lake Mead be filled with Lake Powell water. If Glen Canyon were drained, it would once more be visible. Visitors could once again appreciate the amazing natural rock and land formations, which are now covered with water.
Under one plan, the great Dam spanning Glen Canyon would remain in place. The huge Dam’s diversion tunnels would send 200,000 cubic feet of water per second downstream to Lake Mead, removing those “bathtub rings.”
Is it possible to do this without creating harm? I really hope so, because America is such a beautiful country, I’d hate to think that our most spectacular and beautiful places could remain destroyed by mistake.
Rings on the Glen Canyon walls, becoming visible as the water level goes down because of the drought.
If you haven’t read Powell’s wonderful book, “The Exploration of the Colorado River and Its Canyons,” you can listen to our audiobook of his historic narrative, embellished by many of the sounds of a river adventure. You can download it directly into your phone from Audible.com:
If you would like to give someone a gift of our audiobook, or donate it to a school library, it is available in CD and Mp3CD formats, in stereo, right here on our website.
© 2017 Listen2Read.com
Sinking British passenger ship Lusitania, torpedoed without warning in 1915 by a German U-Boat, off the Irish coast. Great Britain was at war with Germany, but the United states was neutral. One hundred and twenty-eight Americans were killed. America was outraged.
World War I German transmitting station.
One hundred years ago, in 1917, a secret coded radio transmission from a German transmitter was intercepted by British Intelligence. Great Britain was already at war with Germany. Despite the loss of American lives on the Lusitania, United States President Woodrow Wilson was struggling to keep America out of World War I.
World War I German submarine.
German submarines were attacking unarmed merchant ships crossing the Atlantic to prevent food and war materials from reaching England.
Urgent German message in secret code.
The coded radio transmission, one of many, passed into Room 40 of the Admiralty Old Building in London.
Two years before this telegram was intercepted, a copy of the top secret German Handelsschiffsverkehrsbuch had been retrieved from the safe of a German destroyer and had found a welcome home in Room 40.
It was the handbook of the German secret code.
United States President Woodrow Wilson.
President Woodrow Wilson struggled to keep the United State neutral in the war, to “keep an even Spirit.” Entering a war with Germany would be a dangerous undertaking when Germany had not directly threatened the United States.
When British Cryptographers decoded the German radio transmission, they were stunned by its content.
The message was so completely self-serving to British interests in involving the United States into their war, they were almost afraid to show it to the United States Ambassador, James W. Gerard.
They were also reluctant to reveal it because it would signal to the Germans that the British had unlocked their codes.
The content of this message was breathtaking; it was sent from German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmerman to Erich von Eckardt, German Ambassador to Mexico.
Here’s what it said:
German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmerman.
“We (Germany) intend to begin on the first of February unrestricted submarine warfare…we shall endeavor in spite of this to keep the United States neutral.
In the event of this not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal of alliance on the following basis:
Make war together – make peace together –
generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona.
The settlement detail is left to you. You will inform the President (of Mexico) of the above most secretly as soon as the outbreak of war with the United States of America is certain….
Please call the President’s (of Mexico) attention to the fact that the ruthless employment of our submarines now offers the prospect of compelling England in a few months to make peace.”
This was an explosive revelation of the true German attitude toward the United States. Yet, despite reading the Zimmerman telegram, Wilson declared, “We are the sincere friends of the German people and earnestly desire to remain at peace with them…”
In Light Green: US States Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, Mexico’s proposed reward for supporting Germany in World War One.
Then, in March 1917, several United States merchant ships were sunk by Germany and former President Theodore Roosevelt said to a friend: ”If he (Wilson) does not go to war, I shall skin him alive.”
Reluctantly, Wilson delivered a War Message to Congress on April 2, 1917 and a declaration of war was passed by Congress and signed by Wilson on April 6, 1917. The United State was now fully committed to war with Germany and was going, as songwriter Irving Berlin wrote in his famous song, “Over There.”
President of Mexico Venustiano Carranza.
Germany probably hoped to take advantage of the revolution in Mexico, knowing that the United States relationship with Mexico was rocky at best. However, the US did recognize Venustiano Carranza as the legitimate President of Mexico.
A Mexican military commission appointed by Carranza studied the German proposal and eventually rejected the offer. Mexico/United States relations continued to be strained during this time. Mexico remained totally neutral during World War I, even allowing German companies to operate businesses within Mexico.
Long before the official United States Declaration of War on Germany, individual Americans had already been involved in World War I, “Over there.”
British wounded at Bernafay Wood, July 1916.
England needed extra soldiers for its army and Americans, some believing in the cause and some just seeking adventure, volunteered.
The French, just beginning to develop their air force, especially needed educated men to become pilots and fly air sorties over the German line on the Western Front.
James Norman Hall in 1917.
One of the Americans, who volunteered to join the new French Lafayette Escadrille Flying School was James Norman Hall. Hall was 29 years old at the time and looking for adventure. Later in life, he would become the co-author of the world famous book “Mutiny On The Bounty,” as well as other South Seas adventures.
James Norman Hall and his World War I bi-plane.
James Norman Hall learned to fly primitive bi-planes and engage in the original form of air dogfights and battles. He wrote about his unique and hair raising experiences in his book “High Adventure,” which I have published as a Listen To Read audiobook, with actor Andre Devin portraying Hall. As you might imagine, it was quite an experience!
“High Adventure” is part of our American Adventure Library Series, available at Audible.com, I-Tunes, Scribed, Tunein, Barnes and Noble, Downpour, and Amazon.com. If you’d like to download it, here is a link to our page at Audible.com:
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There is a secret in this picture I took last year outside the Summer Palace, Beijing, China. Inside that building, all the doors and windows are blocked by an inside wall so the occupant, the Emperor of China, could not escape. In the year 1898, the Emperor was a prisoner in his own house.
This is the prisoner, Zaitian, the Guangxu Emperor from the Qing Dynasty. He had been made Emperor when he was five years old. Too young to rule, he was controlled by his adoptive mother.
This is his adoptive Mother and captor, the Grand Dowager Cizi. She had been Empress of China for 39 years. Cizi had come to power because, as a concubine, she had given birth to a son with her husband, the Emperor of China.
After her husband died, Cizi’s son became Emperor and she ruled through him.
When her son died, Cizi adopted Zaitian, her nephew, in the direct line of the Qing Dynasty and continued her rule through him.
By 1898, her adopted son was 37 years old. His royal tutors had raised him to believe his mother, the Empress, was brilliant, knew everything and was the smartest person in China. But now, he was beginning to have his doubts.
China had just lost a war with Japan. There was a rebellion of his own people against modern foreign influence. The Emperor saw his mother making decisions leading to a great financial loss for China.
He saw problems everywhere he looked and came to believe that a constitutional monarchy would be best for modern China.
The Guangxu Emperor wanted to exercise his authority without the interference of his mother.
The Grand Dowager, however, would have none of this. To stop the talk of modernization, she placed her son under house arrest for the rest of his life.
Nevertheless, change did come in high drama worthy of a major motion picture or novel. In November 1908, the Empress Cizi fell ill and believed she was about to die. She realized that after her death, her son would exercise his full power as Emperor of China and make the reforms she hated.
So .….she murdered him.
It was said that he was given a bowl of yogurt containing arsenic. It was said that upon eating it, his face turned blue. The Emperor died on November 14, 1908. On the left is a picture of his funeral procession.
Later that very day, the Empress installed as Emperor the next in line from the Qing Dynasty, a 2-year-old boy.
Undoubtedly, the Empress felt she could continue her rule over China through the boy, just as she had ruled through the two previous Emperors. But it was not to be. She was very ill and died November 15, 1908, the day after she murdered her son.
The child Emperor’s name was Henry Pu Yi, and his story became a motion picture in 1997. It was titled, “The Last Emperor”.
After the Grand Dowager‘s death, China remained as she had wanted it: old fashioned, out of date, and out of step with the outside world.
And that is why, six years later, when Americans Roy Chapman Andrews and his wife, Yvette Borup Andrews, explored China for the Natural Science Museum of New York, they found the country in frightful condition.
Life was lived as it had been for centuries, with very little sign of progress. The couple wrote about their fascinating journey in their book “Camps and Trails in Old China,” which I have recorded and published as a Listen To Read audiobook in our American Adventure Library series.
Here are Roy and Yvette, wearing white hats, encamped at Fuchow. In one chapter of the audiobook, the couple describe their encounter with the ancient practice of binding women’s feet, still taking place in the countryside, although Empress Cizi had been against the brutal practice.
Some Chinese were afraid to have their photographs taken; most people had never traveled more than 5 miles from their home. And Roy Chapman Andrews wrote, “No matter how long one has lived in China, one remains in mental suspense unable to decide which is the filthiest city of the republic.”
Our audiobook “Camps and Trails in Old China” describes a time warp between the ancient dictatorship of the Dowager Empress and the modern era, when a constitutional government was just struggling to take hold.
If you would like to hear their lively and fascinating true adventure, you can download it into your cell-phone from Audible.com and listen while driving. Here is the link: http://www.audible.com/pd/Bios-Memoirs/Camps-and-Trails-in-Old-China-Audiobook/B00H7IBS7C/ref=a_search_c4_1_1_srTtl?qid=1487382735&sr=1-1
Here are Roy and Yvette shipside before the trip. By the way, Roy Chapman Andrews is said to be the model for Steven Spielberg’s character Indiana Jones.
Andrews didn’t search for the Ark of the Covenant, but he did explore bat caves, the haunts of the legendary Blue Tiger, travel through a wild country by mule train and take cover from a rain of bullets, surviving an attack in the Yen Ping Rebellion. Roy and Yvette had quite an adventure.
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© 2017 Listen2read.com
Border fence between Arizona, USA and Mexico
Building a border wall between Mexico and the United States is a hot subject these days. Some people regard the border as the beginning of the illegal immigrant trail into the U.S.
But actually, the border is the end of a long trail for would-be illegal immigrants, I recently discovered. Most have traveled along the Pan American Highway that stretches from Ushuaia, Argentina, to the US border, with one notable, dangerous interruption:
There is no road at all for 60 miles between Turbo, Columbia and Yaviza, Panama. It is an area of Panama named the Darian Gap and some claim it is the most dangerous jungle in the world.
The Dariun jungle
The Darian jungle is a partly unexplored rainforest, filled with crocodiles, killer snakes, vampire bats and insects as big as your hand. The tropical heat can rise to over 90 degrees. It is also home to mosquitos, lots of mosquitos, carrying every disease a mosquito carries, from the Zika Virus and the West Nile Virus to Malaria and Yellow Fever.
There is no road here, because it would be too dangerous to build one.
Environmentalists want the area to remain in its natural state to preserve the ancient jungle growth and wildlife, including Indian life. So do the drug smugglers, terrorists, kidnappers, and Marxist guerrilla fighters. They know there are few marked trails through the wilderness and it is easy to disappear. For some, easy disappearance is a good thing.
Some immigrants, who can afford it, try to avoid the dangerous jungle by traveling around it on the ocean, in the rickety boats with questionable engines offered by the human Coyotes. All payment is in cash. If the engine dies, however, the currents carry the hapless travelers out to sea.
Other Coyotes offer to be guides through the dangerous jungle, for cash, claiming to know the way. Sometimes they do, but often they abandon their wards. Because of the heavy layer of foliage, satellite direction finders are almost useless. If a guide abandons his party of immigrants, they could be doomed. Travelers often pass dead bodies along the way. If an insect or animal doesn’t bite you, a bullet might.
The immigrants come from all over the world. Many have flown from Asia, Bangladesh and Dubai to Brazil where, apparently, not too many questions are asked.
Pan American Highway Chicken Bus.
Once on the South American Continent, immigrants find their way to the Pan American Highway heading North, with little or no governmental interference, moving from one country to another.
Eventually, they arrive at the mountainous, yet swampy Darian Jungle between Colombia and Panama that one immigrant called the greenest place he’d ever seen. At this point, the journey becomes more difficult and treacherous than anyone could imagine. Many immigrants have said that had they known how difficult it would be, they would have tried to immigrate to Europe instead.
Jungle at the Darian Gap.
This part of Central America is continuing to play its long historic role in our United States history. Panama has the narrowest landmass between the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Before the US continental railroad was completed in 1869, traveling across this area was the shortest route from the West to the East. But it was always been risky. And, with all the progress resulting from the building of the Panama Canal, travel by foot through the primal jungle remains as dangerous as it has always been.
William Lewis Manly, author of “Death Valley in ’49.”
Adventurer William Lewis Manly trekked North of the Darian jungle, along the Chagres River, in the early 1850’s, crossing from West to East. Manly had been successful mining for gold in California during the gold rush of 1849. He discovered and mined enough gold to enable him to return East and establish a farm, as he wrote in his book ” Death Valley in ‘49”. Preview: http://listen2read.com/death-valley-in-49/
In William Lewis Manly’s day, crossing Panama on foot was the only practical way to travel from California to the Eastern United States. To return home with his gold, Manly booked passage on a clipper ship from San Francisco Bay to Panama. Once Manly landed in Panama City, he had to hike through the jungle, 48 miles to the Caribbean side, where a passenger ship bound for Havana and New Orleans was expected. His entire fortune was wrapped in a gold belt tied tight around his waist.
“We had very little to eat. We kept a sharp eye out for robbers, keeping together as much as we could, for we knew that all returning Californians would be suspected of having money. Most all of them were ready for war, except myself, who had no weapon of any kind. All of these people had a bad name and all of them carried a long bladed knife called a Machete, with which they could kill a man with a single blow.”
Every immigrant who crosses this area today is just as nervous as Manly was in the 1850’s. Everyone knows that what they are doing is high risk, with strong odds of failure. An immigrant named Ahmed Hassan told a reporter for the Wall Street Journal, “There was no water. There were snakes. I thought I might die in the jungle.”
Immigrants to the US arrive at this point because it is easy for them to pass through as many as six South American countries without being stopped. Only recently, has Panama begun returning would-be immigrants caught in the Darian Gap to Colombia.
Pan American Highway
Those who are able to pass through Panama without being deported must then pass through five more countries before they reach that much talked about fence on the United States border. At that point, eleven sovereign nations in South and Central America have allowed the immigrants to pass through their jurisdiction toward the United States without stopping them. I guess the US State Department doesn’t know about this.
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“A Visit from St. Nicholas” was written by Clemente Moore in 1823.
I recorded it recently and thought I would share it pur Listen To Read community during this Holiday Season with best wishes for the New Year.
Here’s the link:
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